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Craig Test | Hip Anteversion / Retroversion

Dr Rohit Bhaskar
Dr Rohit Bhaskar
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Craig's test is a passive test that is used to measure femoral anteversion or forward torsion of the femoral neck. It is also known as 'Trochanteric Prominence Angle Test (TPAT)'.

Femoral anteversion is the angle between the femoral neck and femoral shaft, indicating the degree of torsion of the femur. It is also known as Femoral neck anteversion.

There are various ways via which femoral anteversion can be measured. These are some methods used: imaging using radiography, fluoroscopy, computed tomography (CT), ultrasound (US), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as well as functional assessments. MRI method has been shown to be more reliable (r = 0.97) than CT (r = 0.77) and any other tests. Craig's test is the most commonly used physical examination test for femoral anteversion.

Craig Test


Patient position

The patient was placed in the prone position with hip in neutral and the knee flexion of 90° of tested side on an examination table.

Therapist position

The examiner stood on the contralateral side to the subject’s hip being examined. While stabilizing the sacrum with the forearm, the greater trochanter was palpated with the hand that was more cranial.


Examiner with caudal hand then palpated the greater trochanter of the tested side while passively internally rotating the hip until the most prominent portion of the greater trochanter reached its most lateral position.

One examiner holds the position of the leg in the position where the greater trochanter is the most prominent. Another examiner measures the angle between the shaft of the tibia (a line bisecting the medial and lateral malleoli) and a line perpendicular to the table (an imaginary vertical line extending from the table) using either a goniometer or inclinometer. And thus records the angle of femoral anteversion.


Normal: At birth, the mean anteversion angle is 30 degrees which decreases to 8-15 degrees in adults (angle of internal rotation).
Angle >15 degrees: Increased anteversion leads to squinting patellae & pigeon toed walking (in-toeing) which is twice as common in girls.
Angle <8 degrees: Retroversion
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