Cooper Test 12-Minute Run to Check Aerobic Fitness

The Cooper Test is a long-standing, internationally used measure of a runner’s fitness.

It involves a simple test – run as far as you can in 12 minutes – and can give a pretty accurate measure of a runner’s fitness level and give a good estimation of their VO2 Max.

Many athletes use the Cooper Test to benchmark their running; they’ll perform one test, then structure their training plan accordingly to try and improve and beat their previous time.


Let’s jump in

What is the Cooper Test?

The Cooper test is a fitness test used to estimate an individual’s aerobic fitness or VO2 max.

It was designed by Kenneth H. Cooper in 1968 for the US Military and has been used by several coaches across a variety of sports ever since.

The original paper is still available: Cooper K. A Means of Assessing Maximal Oxygen Intake Correlation Between Field and Treadmill Testing. Journal of American Medical Association. 1968;203(3):201-204)

The efficient functioning of the cardiovascular system of an athlete is a key determinant in performance. The ability to supply the muscles continuously with adequate levels of oxygen is sometimes referred to as the aerobic capacity.

 Cooper Test 

Measuring aerobic fitness by getting a participant to push their body to the limit provides an accurate measure of this aerobic capacity. Moreover, one of the most widely used terms in sports science when referring to an athlete´s aerobic capacity is VO2 max.

VO2 Max – What Is It?

VO2 max is defined as the maximum rate of oxygen consumption as measured during incremental exercise. It indicates how efficient an individual uses oxygen while exercising.

The accurate testing of VO2 max normally requires access to a laboratory and can be expensive, but there are a few aerobic tests that can be used to predict VO2 max scores; Cooper Test being one of the most widely used.

Its popularity is due to how easy it is to perform with a limited amount of equipment needed, you can perform it yourself, and it is relatively simple to interpret the results of the test.

 Cooper Test 

The units of measurement used when presenting values are litres of O2 per minute (l.min-1) or divided by body weight to get a score relative to a person’s body weight (

According to a study by Wilmore and Costill, a typical VO2 max value for the average young untrained male is about 3.5 litres per minute or 45 and their female equivalents would score about 2.0 litres/minute or 38

The scores of VO2 max at the elite level vary across sports.

Intriguingly, the highest scores recorded come from cross country skiers, with top class cyclists and athletes also recording values that typically exceed 80 and occasionally exceeding 90 World class female endurance athletes have recorded scores exceeding 70

The table below shows a number of those values with their respective sports:

VO2 max (ml/kg/min)AthleteGenderSport/Event
96.0Espen Harald BjerkeMaleCross Country Skiing
96.0Bjorn DaehlieMaleCross Country Skiing
92.5Greg LeMondMaleCycling
85.0Dave BedfordMale10K runner
85.0John NgugiMaleCross Country Runner
84.6Chris FroomeMaleCycling
84.4Steve PrefontaineMale10k runner
73.5Greta WaitzFemaleMarathon runner
71.2Ingrid KristiansenFemaleMarathon Runner

source: MACKENZIE, B. (2001)

How To Perform The Cooper Test

The test is relatively easy to perform, but the following things should be taken into consideration:

The goal of the Cooper test is to run and cover as much distance as possible in 12 minutes.

Tips for Running Your Cooper Test:

1. Warm-up: Prior to starting the test, ensure that you warm-up for 20-30 minutes, including light jogging and strides to get the body prepared.

2. Course: The test should ideally be carried out on a standard 400m running track, or find an accurately measured flat course of the same distance (using your GPS watch).

3. Visuals: Put a visual aid (a cone or a water bottle) at the 200m point of the lap, to assist with pacing and help determine total distance covered.

4Timing: You could use a 12-minute countdown function on your watch if performing the test on your own. This way you can focus on keeping count of the laps and then you can stop the test once your watch beeps. Alternatively, if you have someone helping record the test, they can set you off and keep count of the laps and time.

How To Calculate Your 12-Minute Run Cooper Test Results

After completing the test, you could calculate your estimated VO2 max by using the following formulas

Kilometres: VO2 max = (22.4 x your distace in kilometres) – 11.3

Miles: VO2 max = (36 x your distance in miles) – 11.3

For instance, imagine you cover 3200m. Your estimated VO2 max would be (22.4 x 3.2) -11.3 = 60.3.

You can then use your test result to compare your performance to the norms for both your age and gender.

Instead of using the calculation and getting your VO2 max, you can use the distance achieved to determine how you compare to others of similar age and gender.


Cooper Test Results for Males (in metres)

AgeExcellentAbove AveAverageBelow AvePoor
Male 20-29> 2800m2400 – 2800m2200 – 2399m1600 – 2199m< 1600m
Males 30-39> 2700m2300 – 2700m1900 – 2299m1500 – 1999m< 1500m
Males 40-49> 2500m2100 – 2500m1700 – 2099m1400 – 1699m< 1400m
Males 50+> 2400m2000 – 2400m1600 – 1999m1300 – 1599m< 1300m

Cooper Test Results for Females (in metres)

AgeExcellentAbove AveAverageBelow AvePoor
Females 20-29> 2700m2200 – 2700m1800 – 2199m1500 – 1799m< 1500m
Females 30-39> 2500m2000 – 2500m1700 – 1999m1400 – 1699m< 1400m
Females 40-49> 2300m1900 – 2300m1500 – 1899m1200 – 1499m< 1200m
Females 50+> 2200m1700 – 2200m1400 – 1699m1100 – 1399m< 1100m

How To Structure Your Training Around Your Cooper Test Result

 Cooper Test 

Generally, the test can be performed at any stage of the year, but the start of the cross-country season (September-October in the northern hemisphere) is traditionally a good time to do it.

This will allow the athlete and coach to use the test result as a marker or benchmark of current fitness and guide them in developing the tailored training plan.

After the test, calculate your speed per 400m lap. For instance, a distance of 3200m= 90 secs per 400m. A typical week based on the test result would include:

  • Run three times the distance covered in 45 minutes. For example – 3.2k run on test = 9.6k in 45 mins.
  • 3 x 2k at the speed with a 90 secs rest. For example – 3.2k run on test = 90secs/400m = 2k in 7.30 mins x 3 with 90 secs rest.
  • Run a series of 200m at a pace 8 seconds per 200m faster than the test run speed. For example, 3.2k run on test = 90 secs/400, when halved = 45 secs minus 8 seconds = 37 secs/200m. Start with 8 reps of the 200s and build up to 16 over a 2-month period.

In summary, the best way to make the most of your training is to use a logical and structured approach. Moreover, you should add some progression into your training and a gradual increase of 10% over a 2-month period would be sufficient.

Dr Rohit Bhaskar, Physio
Dr Rohit Bhaskar, Physio Dr. Rohit Bhaskar, Physio is Founder of Bhaskar Health and Physiotherapy and is also a consulting physiotherapist. He completed his Graduation in Physiotherapy from Uttar Pradesh University of Medical Sciences. His clinical interests are in Chest Physiotherapy, stroke rehab, parkinson’s and head injury rehab. Bhaskar Health is dedicated to readers, doctors, physiotherapists, nurses, paramedics, pharmacists and other healthcare professionals. Bhaskar Health audience is the reason I feel so passionate about this project, so thanks for reading and sharing Bhaskar Health.

Post a Comment

Listen to this article