What is Kangaroo Mother Care: Benefits and Procedure

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Skin-to-skin contact between mothers and newborns was first used in neonatal wards in Bogota, Colombia, which had a shortage of incubators for babies with severe hospital infections. Neonatologists Edgar Rey and Hector Martinez turned to nature—specifically kangaroos, which hold their young as soon as they are born. They sent mothers home with the instruction to hold their infants diapered but bare-chested between their breasts in an upright position as often as possible, feeding them only breast milk.

Kangaroo Mother Care

What the doctors found was that this skin-to-skin contact not only allowed mothers to leave the hospitals (which decreased overcrowding) but it also decreased their babies' dependency on incubators. And the most astounding? The doctors watched as mortality rates plunged from 70 percent to 30 percent.

Now doctors across the United States, South America, South Africa, and other countries recommend this skin-to-skin contact—called kangaroo care or kangaroo mother care—to new moms of both premature and full-term infants. The bonding should last from 60 minutes to 24 hours a day, and it can be performed by fathers as well.

Benefits of Kangaroo Care

"Physiology and research provide overwhelming evidence that kangaroo mother care is not only safe but superior to the use of technology such as incubators," says says Dr. Nils Bergman, senior medical superintendent of Mowbray Maternity Hospital in Cape Town, Africa, where doctors deliver 7,000 children a year. "Depriving babies of skin-to-skin makes alternative stress pathways in the brain, which can lead to ADD, colic, sleep disorders, among other things."

Here are some important benefits of kangaroo care:

Better Adaptability Outside the Womb

"Thermal regulation is a very common problem with infants, especially preterm babies," says Malika D. Shah, M.D., assistant professor of pediatrics and neonatology at the Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine. After all, when your baby was in the womb, she didn't need to regulate her own temperature. Since your skin is the same temperature as the womb, Baby will find it easier to adapt to her post-birth environment.

Boosted Mental Development

Preemies who received kangaroo care had better brain functioning at 15 years old—comparable to that of adolescents born at term—than those who had been placed in incubators, says a Canadian study. By stabilizing heart rate, oxygenation, and improving sleep, the brain is better able to develop, Ludington says.

Promotion of Healthy Weight

One Cochrane Library review concluded that skin-to-skin contact dramatically increases newborn weight gain. "When babies are warm, they don't need to use their energy to regulate their body temperature," Ludington says. "They can use that energy to grow instead." Plus, kangarooed babies enjoy increased breastfeeding rates, which can't hurt healthy weight gain.

Easier Breastfeeding

"Newborns instinctively have a heightened sense of smell, so placing your baby skin-to-skin helps her seek out the nipple and begin breastfeeding," says Katie Dunning, R.N., clinical coordinator of labor and delivery at Mount Sinai Hospital. In fact, moms who practiced kangaroo care were more likely to breastfeed exclusively and, on average, these moms breastfed three months longer than those who didn't practice skin-to-skin care, says one study published in Neonatal Network.

Healthier Heart Rate and Respiration

Babies who suffered from respiratory distress and stayed in kangaroo care positions were relieved within 48 hours without respirators. One study concluded that heart rates for infants given kangaroo care were more regular than babies not given it.

Improved Immunity

"Premature [babies] seem to have poor immune systems—[they're] susceptible to allergies, infections, feeding problems. Early skin-to-skin contact dramatically reduces these problems," says Bergman.

Increased Milk Supply

When mom and baby are together, hormones that regulate lactation balance out, helping you produce more milk, Dr. Shah says.

Reduced Fetal Stress and Pain

Just 10 minutes of skin-to-skin contact reduces babies' levels of the stress hormone cortisol, and increases levels of the "cuddle hormone" oxytocin, which stimulates the parasympathetic nervous system to make babies feel calm and safe, says Ludington. Her research, published in AACN Clinical Issues, shows that when preterm infants are held chest-to-chest, they react less to heel sticks, a minimally invasive way to draw blood, and a common source of pain among preemies.

Better Sleep for Baby

Less stress = better sleep. Preemies who were cradled skin-to-skin slept more deeply and woke up less often than those who slept in incubators, reported the journal Pediatrics.

Promotion of Bonding with Dad

"From their time in the womb, babies recognize their fathers' voice," says kangaroo care researcher Gene Cranston Anderson, Ph.D., R.N., professor emeritus of nursing at Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland. "Babies find skin-to-skin contact with dad calming, and it helps them bond."

Prevention of Postpartum Depression

Various studies show that kangaroo care reduces postpartum depression. According to MCN: The American Journal of Maternal/Child Nursing, activity in the mother's adrenal axis is negatively influenced by childbirth, and skin-to-skin contact may reactivate the pathways to minimize the risk of depression. Plus, oxytocin released from skin-to-skin care decreases maternal anxiety and promotes attachment, further reducing the risk, says Dunning.


How do I do kangaroo care?

Your nurse will typically help you get started with kangaroo care in the hospital. A few basic tips for getting started with kangaroo care include:

  • Removing your bra and wearing a shirt that opens in the front. You can also use a hospital gown that opens in the front for kangaroo care. Screens can usually be provided for your privacy.
  • Placing the baby — only wearing a diaper and hat — on your bare chest. Your baby will be in an upright position, with his or her chest against your chest.
  • Covering the baby’s back. Once you’re settled skin-to-skin, drape a blanket or your shirt or gown over your baby’s back. Keep your baby warm and comfortable while snuggled against your chest.
  • Relaxing together. During your session, try and relax as you hold your baby. Remember to breathe normally and focus on your child.
  • Planning on multiple sessions. You should plan to do kangaroo care more than once — at least one hour, four or more times each week. However, the number of times you will be able to do kangaroo care in one day will be up to your nurse. Talk to your care team about the best schedule for your baby.
  • Letting your baby rest. This is a great time to let your baby rest and relax on you. Allow your baby to snuggle in and fall asleep during the session. Remember, this isn’t time to play with your baby.
Moms aren’t the only ones that can do kangaroo care. A baby can also benefit from skin-to-skin time with dad. Actually, the different feel of the father’s body will provide a different stimulation to the baby.

There will be times when you can’t do kangaroo care with your child. If your baby has arterial monitoring lines, is on an oscillator or is receiving another type of treatment you may not be able to do kangaroo care.

Is there anything I shouldn’t do while practicing kangaroo care?
There are a few things you shouldn’t do when you are practicing kangaroo care with your baby. The most important thing is to be focused on your baby during this time. Spending time skin-to-skin with your child can help your baby in the first few days, weeks and months of life. This activity can also be a great chance to bond with your child.

When you are doing kangaroo care, make sure you:

  • Put away your cell phone. Having your phone out during kangaroo care is not only a distraction from your child, but it can be a safety issue.
  • Are healthy. If you aren’t feeling well or have a current illness, it’s best to not do kangaroo care until you are feeling better.
  • Can spend at least 60 minutes each session skin-to-skin with your baby.
  • Have clean and healthy skin (no perfumes, skin rashes, open skin lesions or cold sores).
  • Don’t smoke before kangaroo care.

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