Structure and Function of the Nervous System

The Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems

The picture you have in your mind of the nervous system probably includes the brain, the nervous tissue contained within the cranium, and the spinal cord, the extension of nervous tissue within the vertebral column. Additionally, the nervous tissue that reach out from the brain and spinal cord to the rest of the body (nerves) are also part of the nervous system.

 Nervous System

We can anatomically divide the nervous system into two major regions: the central nervous system (CNS) is the brain and spinal cord, the peripheral nervous system (PNS) is the nerves. The brain is contained within the cranial cavity of the skull, and the spinal cord is contained within the vertebral canal of the vertebral column. The peripheral nervous system is so named because it is in the periphery—meaning beyond the brain and spinal cord.

This diagram shows a silhouette of a human highlighting the nervous system. The central nervous system is composed of the brain and spinal cord. The brain is a large mass of ridged and striated tissue within the head. The spinal cord extends down from the brain and travels through the torso, ending in the pelvis. Pairs of enlarged nervous tissue, labeled ganglia, flank the spinal cord as it travels through the rib area. The ganglia are part of the peripheral nervous system, along with the many thread-like nerves that radiate from the spinal cord and ganglia through the arms, abdomen and legs.
Central and Peripheral Nervous System: The CNS contains the brain and spinal cord, the PNS includes nerves.

Functional Divisions of the Nervous System

In addition to the anatomical divisions listed above, the nervous system can also be divided on the basis of its functions. The nervous system is involved in receiving information about the environment around us (sensory functions, sensation) and generating responses to that information (motor functions, responses) and coordinating the two (integration).

Sensation. Sensation refers to receiving information about the environment, either what is happening outside (ie: heat from the sun) or inside the body (ie: heat from muscle activity). These sensations are known as stimuli (singular = stimulus) and different sensory receptors are responsible for detecting different stimuli. Sensory information travels towards the CNS through the PNS nerves in the specific division known as the afferent (sensory) branch of the PNSWhen information arises from sensory receptors in the skin, skeletal muscles, or joints this is known as somatic sensory information; when information arises from sensory receptors in the blood vessels or internal organs, this is known as visceral sensory information.

Response. The nervous system produces a response in effector organs (such as muscles or glands) due to the sensory stimuli. The motor (efferent) branch of the PNS carries signals away from the CNS to the effector organs. When the effector organ is a skeletal muscle, the information is called somatic motor; when the effector organ is cardiac or smooth muscle or glandular tissue, the information is called visceral (autonomicmotor. Voluntary responses are governed by the somatic nervous system and involuntary responses are governed by the autonomic nervous system, which are discussed in the next section.

Integration. Stimuli that are received by sensory structures are communicated to the nervous system where that information is processed. This is called integration. In the CNS, stimuli are compared with, or integrated with, other stimuli, memories of previous stimuli, or the state of a person at a particular time. This leads to the specific response that will be generated.

Nervous System Function: Integration occurs in the CNS where sensory information from the periphery is processed and interpreted. The CNS then creates a motor plan that is executed by the efferent branch working with effector organs.

Bhaskar Summary

The nervous system can be separated into divisions on the basis of anatomy and physiology. The anatomical divisions are the central and peripheral nervous systems. The CNS is the brain and spinal cord. The PNS is everything else and includes afferent and efferent branches with further subdivisions for somatic, visceral and autonomic function. Functionally, the nervous system can be divided into those regions that are responsible for sensation, those that are responsible for integration, and those that are responsible for generating responses.