Barthel Index (ADL Assessment)

The  Barthel Scale/Index (BI)  is an ordinal scale used to measure performance in activities of daily living (ADL). Ten variables describing ADL and mobility are scored, a higher number being a refle…

ASIA Impairment Scale for Spinal Injury

The   American Spinal Injury Association I mpairment Scale  ( AIS ) was developed by the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) in 2006, was revised in 2011, and remains the most widely used neuro…

What is Lhermitte's Sign?

Lhermitte’s sign is a short, intense sensation that feels similar to an electric shock passing down the neck and spine and radiating through the trunk and limbs. It can occur with multiple sclerosis …

Barlow & Ortolani Test For Congenital Hip Dislocation

The instability of the hip may be assessed by the Ortolani and Barlow tests, which play a big role in the clinical screening for developmental dysplasia of the hip.  The Barlow Test is a physical ex…

Kernig Sign: Sign of Meningitis

Kernig's sign is one of the physically demonstrable symptoms of meningitis. Severe stiffness of the hamstrings causes an inability to straighten the leg when the hip is flexed to 90 degrees. Kern…

Shoulder Subluxation: Symptoms, Treatment, and More

Shoulder subluxation is a common post-stroke complication affecting up to 80% of the stroke subjects. The glenohumeral joint is multiaxial and has a wider range of motion than other joints. In order …